Korean J Ophthalmol > Volume 34(5); 2020 > Article
Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 2020;34(5):392-397.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3341/kjo.2020.0058    Published online October 5, 2020.
Factors Affecting Contrast Sensitivity in Intermittent Exotropia
Ji Min Kwon, Soo Jung Lee
Department of Ophthalmology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
Correspondence:  Soo Jung Lee, Tel: 82-51-797-2310, Fax: 82-51-797-2321, 
Email: kris9352@paik.ac.kr
Received: 23 April 2020   • Revised: 28 July 2020   • Accepted: 30 July 2020
To determine whether contrast sensitivity (CS) can represent photophobia in intermittent exotropia (IXT) by comparing the CS test with and without glare stimulus, and to analyze the factors of IXT affecting CS.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 107 patients with basic-type IXT. We compared CS under mesopic and photopic conditions, with and without glare. We compared the difference in CS before and after glare (ΔCS) between mesopic and photopic conditions, and compared CS with glare between patients with and without photophobia. The correlations between the clinical features of IXT and CS were analyzed.
There was no significant reduction in CS at all spatial frequencies by glare stimulus. ΔCS was greater at high spatial frequencies under photopic conditions than under mesopic conditions. The group with subjective photophobia showed lower CS at 10.2 cpd under mesopic conditions with glare. CS showed a negative correlation with stereopsis under both mesopic and photopic conditions, and a positive correlation with fusional ability at low and intermediate spatial frequencies under mesopic conditions. ΔCS was smaller at intermediate spatial frequencies with better fusional ability, greater at high spatial frequencies with photophobia, and greater at intermediate spatial frequencies with a higher frequency of exotropia.
The CS test could not represent photophobia in IXT. However, CS tended to decrease with glare stimulus, and CS under mesopic conditions with glare was worse when accompanied by photophobia. Moreover, a poorer degree of stereopsis was associated with lower CS, and better fusional ability was associated with higher CS under mesopic conditions. Therefore, the CS test can be considered helpful in evaluating sensory function in IXT.
Key Words: Contrast sensitivity, Depth perception, Exotropia, Photophobia

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